HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN SOUTH KORDUFAN AND BLUE NILE STATES OF SUDAN
JANUARY - DECEMBER 2015
Released on 20thMARCH 2016
Human Rights and Development Organization (HUDO Centre) is a Sudanese non-governmental organization (NGO) based in Kampala and Juba South-Sudan. It is undertaking monitoring of the human rights situation in government controlled areas of South Kordufan (SK) and Blue Nile (BN) States of Sudan and the Internally Displaced People (IDPs) from these two states.
One of the major causes for the war in BN and SK to resume in 2011 is mistrust between the National congress party (NCP) which is the ruling party and Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army-North (SPLM/A–N). SPLM/A-N is the rebelling group that resumed fighting after the relative peace in the areas created by signing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005. In response, the government of Sudan (GoS) represented by security agencies (National Intelligence and security services (NISS), Military Intelligence (MI), Popular Defense Forces (PDF), Rapid Support Force RSF, allied militias and police) carried out operations of apprehending people that oppose government. This operation caused a lot of human rights violations in the two areas.
Therefore, this report highlights incidents of human rights violations and abuses that took place in the mentioned areas during the year of 2015. Due to security, geographical and logistical challenges, HUDO Centre documented verified incidents from places where monitors managed to reach, it consist of more than fifty cases of arbitrary arrest, more than twenty villages looted, burned and displaced, also it consist of some rape cases, cases of child rights violations and other human rights violation incidents. There is also an attached report on the situation of the IDPs that are mainly from SK and BN states. The field monitors observed, collected data/ information and together with Kampala office, victims and their relatives were interviewed.
The main purpose of this report is to bring to light the human rights violations and abuses taking place in SK and BN states so that the stakeholders like United Nations (UN) and international community could pressurize on the Government of Sudan to respect the international human rights and humanitarian laws.
1.1 About HUDO
HUDO Centre is an independent, non-governmental, non-partisan and non-profit making organization based in Kampala-Uganda and Juba-South Sudan. As a rights-based organization it has two fold programming approach comprising both practical interventions as its ‘hardware' component and the human rights dimension as an integral ‘software' component under which, all projects are designed and implemented.
HUDO Centre works towards the promotion of human rights and dignity for vulnerable communities like the internally displaced persons (IDPs), Refugees in camps in the neighboring country (South Sudan). HUDO also believes in achieving and promoting human welfare without racial, religious or gender discrimination.
HUDO Centre’s mission is to bring human rights to life by producing and shaping human rights tools, raising awareness and enforcing practices that empower people to improve their own lives and the lives of others.
HUDO’s strategic vision is to build a cohesive, civilized and fair society that is stronger where all human beings are equally valued, can fully participate socially, have equal chances to succeed, treated with dignity and respect.
HUDO is currently undertaking monitoring of the human rights situation in government controlled areas of South Kordufan (SK), Blue Nile (BN) States and the IDPs from the two states. Together with partners, HUDO Centre trains human rights monitors based in these areas (SK and BN) in order to improve/strengthen their capacity to monitor, document, report and research on human rights violations and abuses taking place. HUDO is also monitoring court processes in order to assess the principles of due diligence and fair trial.
1.2 Background of the study
The Conflict in Sudan predate back to historical injustices, social imbalance, religion, political and racial discrimination. The first civil war started on August 1955 a year before independence by the Southern Sudanese.The conflict erupted due to mistrust which assured later in underdevelopment and discrimination against the Southern region by the central government. The region is mostly inhabited by many different ethnic groups.The conflict was between the central government and the rebel group/ Anya Nya. The first war ended in 1972 by signing Addis Ababa agreement, which brought relative peace until 1983 when the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/ A) was formed. One of the major reasons SPLM/A fought for, is the dishonoring the Addis Ababa agreement by the central government.
Other regions and individuals from Northern Sudan also joined the SPLM/A for the reasons of underdevelopment and discrimination. In 1985 South Kordufan/ Nuba Mountains joined SPLM/A as well as Blue Nile which joined in late 1980s. The war continued until 2005 when the comprehensive peace agreement (CPA) was signed.
After the CPA, the two states of South Kordufan (SK) and Blue Nile (BN) enjoyed relative peace up to 2011 when South Sudan declared its independence as a result of the Referendum on the right to self-determination, which was enshrined in the CPA and guaranteed by the Interim National Constitution 2005. The cessation of South Sudan divided the SPLM/A into two. One Part in South Sudan and the other remained in Sudan and subsequently renamed as Sudan peoples’ liberation movement/Army-North (SPLM/ A-N).
The conflict broke out in South Kordufan state in 2011, due to many factors. There was a historical lack of trust between the two parties (SPLM and NCP), tension over the results of the state’s complementary elections and the expected exercise of the Popular Consultationwhich constituted in the (CPA). The Government of Sudan (GoS) attempted to disarm the SPLA soldiers in SK but the disarmament was opposed by the SPLM leadership hence the conflict.
In June 2011 the president of Sudan (Omar Albashir) declared the state of emergency in SK under the Emergency Act of 1998. The State of Emergency also had been declared in BN in September 2011. The state of emergency had favored the security officials’ to violate the rights of civilians. National Intelligence and Security services (NISS) and Military Intelligence (MI) practiced to arrest civilians arbitrarily accusing them of associating with the SPLA-N. Many people in villages in the two states were forced by Sudan Armed Force (SAF) and its allied militias to evacuate or burned.
In September 2011 the war spread to Blue Nile state due to the tension created by the conflict in SK. The war broke out in Blue Nile after president Omar Al-Bashir had rejected the implementation of Nafie Agar agreement which was signed on 29th June 2011. Nevertheless, on 22nd August 2011 Al-Bashir and Agar held a meeting in Addis Ababa hosted by Meles Zenawi Ethiopian former prime minister. The meeting ended in disagreements.
The security agencies are violating human rights and aggressively dealing with whoever opposes the government. Therefore, human rights situation deteriorated, particularly in conflict areas of SK and BN and areas where the internally displaced persons (IDPs) were.
This report aims to bring to light the human rights violations and abuses taking place in South Kordufan and Blue Nile states of Sudan(Jan-Dec 2015) and its consequences in order to draw the attention of national, regional and international community and come up with specific suggestions on how to improve the human rights situation.
- To furnish the United Nations’ Human Rights council. and special rapporteur on Sudan, Amnesty International (AI), Human Rights Watch (HRW), the Diplomatic Missions in Sudan and others with information, in order to enhance their efforts to pressurize the Government of Sudan to respect human rights.
- To strengthen the Sudanese advocacy groups by providing them with accurate information to use in their lobbying and to engage more Sudanese Civil Society in the human rights advocacy process.
- To assist in lobbying the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and African Union (AU) to urge the Government of Sudan to lift the state of emergency in South Kordufan and Blue Nile states and to contribute in stopping the violation and abuses.
HUDO centre had established its own network consisting of field monitors and focal persons to gather information within the conflict zone. This network spreads geographically in both SK and BN since it was not possible to have easy access to the whole area.
HUDO Centre has a reporting panel that examines information from the field. The panel used analytical methods to sort the information in order to arrive at accurate findings that should be included in the report.
For the purposes of consolidating this report HUDO Centre also used the following methods in collecting data/ information;
- HUDO centre developed data/ information forms
- Conducted interviews with victims and relatives
- Analyzed Media reports
- Verified comments from professionals (Lawyers, Doctors…etc)
- Scrutinized official declarations
1.5 Scope of the Study
Sudan is an African country bordering Egypt and Libya to the North, Red sea, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the East, South Sudan to the South and Central Africa and Chad to the West. It consists of eighteen (18) states including South Kordufan (SK) and Blue Nile (BN). Both SK and BN states cover most of the southern border, neighboring South Sudan. This report covers the two states of SK and BN where HUDO Centre focuses, as well as the situation of IDPs scattered in other states.
Sudan Map (Shows South Kordufan State/ Nuba Mountains in green and Blue Nile State in Blue)
South Kordufan/Nuba Mountains state is mainly inhabited by Nuba ethnic groups among other african groups who are mostly farmers. There are also settlers from other ethnicities (of the Arabs origins) most of them are traders or pastoralists. In April 2013, the Western part of the state which is inhabited by Kasha, Dajo and other ethnic groups from Nuba Mountains were annexed to the newly created West Kordofan State.
South Kordufan State consists of 17 localities. Some are located under SPLA-N control territories and others are within the State controlled areas. This report covers the following towns and villages under the government control;
Kadogli town in Kadogli Locality; Talodi town in Talodi Locality; Rashad town, Umbrambeta, Elfaid Umabdalla, khor Eldelaib,Al Ghadeer,Tomi, Elmansour and Eljebailat in Rashad Locality; Al-Abbasiya town, Terri, Tabassa and Mabsut in Al-Abbasiya Locality; Abu-Kershola town and Cham Chaka in Abu Kershola Locality; Dilling town and Kalara in Dilling Locality as well as Kasha village of Alsonout Locality of West Kordufan State.
South Kordufan State/ Nuba Mountains Map
Blue Nile State is mainly occupied by Funj, Ingasana, Broun tribes among other African Ethnicities as well as other groups of Arab-origin. The state is made up of six (6) localities controlled by the state with the presence of SPLA-N. This report focuses on the following towns and villages under the government control;
Damazin town, Madinah (8, 9, 10), Madeim Masaleet,and Ganees WestinDamazin Locality; Agadi located in Tadamon Locality; Madeim Aljabel, Deirang, Khor Maganza, Fadimia, Keglok, BageesAshaheed Afandi, and Wad Abouk placed in Bau Locality; Geli, Fuj, Dakilog, Gambarde and Abigolocatedin Kurmuk Locality; Daim Saad, Abrondu, Bakori and Fazogli which is located in Gissan Locality; Roseires, Alazaza, Shanisha, Umdarfa, Khor Mago and Um Barid locatedin Roseires Locality.
Blue Nile State map
1.6 Statement of the problem
Reports from HUDO Centre’s field monitors and other sources indicate that the human rights situation in SK and BN states had deteriorated since the war broke-out in 2011. The subsequent announcement of the State of Emergency by president of Sudan in 2011 also exaggerated the situation. It became worse after the declaration of the offensive summer/military operation by Sudan Ministry of defense in 2014. Nevertheless there was a military campaign carried out by the SPLA-N in the two states meant to disrupt the March-April 2015 elections.
The human rights situation had worsened because of many arbitrary arrests in both states of SK and BN. Many civilians were frequently arrested and accused of being affiliated or associating with SPLA/N. These arrests were carried out by the National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS), Military Intelligence (MI) and the allied government militias. Among those under detention are women and children.
The military presence of Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and its associated militias like the Rapid Support Force (RSF) and Popular Defense Force (PDF) together with the frequent attacks by the SPLA-N in the two states had forced many people to run away from their villages. Most of the people vacated their villages as a result of instructions from SAF or the status of insecurity. The villages were largely destroyed and people could not return hence the displacement.
According to field monitors, around nine (12) villages in SK and more than ten (10) villages in BN were burnt down and people were displaced. The security (SAF) ordered people to vacate the villages within two hours. People lost property as they rushed to save their lives. Security forces could not allow the displaced persons to erect settlement camps or have access to humanitarian aid.
The violated rights are as follows:
- Right to life
- Security of person
- Right to fair trial
- Child Rights
- Rights of women and girls
- Right to freedom of movement and residence
- Rights of civilians within conflict areas
- Right of Worship
1.7 Limitation and Challenges
- The imposed State of Emergency in the two states restricts the movement of monitors. This directly affected the process and time taken in collecting data.
- The continuous suspicion from intelligence (NISS and MI) whereby any new comers in towns or anybody talking about rights was watched. They conducted many check points which hindered the movement of monitors within the two states.
- Insecurity due to the ongoing conflict between government forces and the SPLA-N.
- Poor means of transport whereby roads are not very accessible and most of them are seasonal.
- Some of the victims and witnesses do not easily reveal information due to security threats. According to interviews that were conducted by HUDO monitors, some of the victims or the witnesses expressed their fears from security agencies.
- The number of monitors was not enough to cover the incidents in the two states easily.
2.0 Arbitrary Arrest:
HUDO Centre observed the situation through their monitors and other focal persons. The arbitrary arrests jointly carried out by NISS, MI and the government associated militias were mainly unlawful. Many people arrested were unarmed civilians from different villages and towns, were accused of associating or supporting the SPLA-N. They arrest anybody irrespective of age or sex/gender and treat the detainees inhumanly. In the following section we illustrate the detailed findings on how the arbitrary arrests were carried out in SK and BN.
2.0.1 Arbitrary Arrest in South Kordufan
On Feb. 2nd 2015, a group of Military Intelligence (MI) soldiers from Al Abbasiya town arrested Adam Essa Agoumy, 35 years, who is a member of SPLM-N. He was detained from his village called Mabsout. The MI soldiers came in three vehicles (land cruiser) when they reached Mabsout, they immediately shot firing in the air before arresting him. He was later transported to SAF headquarter in El Obeid by then. Later they transferred him to Al Abbasiya and filed a criminal case against him, accusing him under article (130) Intentional murder according to Sudan criminal Act 1991. They accused him that he killed a civilian at Moreib village in 2011. The defendant’s lawyer objected the accusation. However, the procedures seem to prove unfair trial since the Judge did not give the defendant’s lawyer enough time for his defense argument. He also refused to hear any testimony from the defendant’s witnesses. On August 2015, he was charged to death sentences. Days after his lawyer died in suspicious criminal event. Up to date no appeal done in his case yet, the appeal constituted period is over.
On March 7th 2015, NISS in Talodi town arrested Mohamed Alfadil Abulnour and Hamid Mousa who are members of the Popular Committee of Abdul Fadeel Almaz neighborhood in Talodi. They were taken in a vehicle without number plate. NISS had earlier tried to recruit them to the National Congress Party (NCP) to become members, but the two men objected. Our sources indicate that it was alleged that NISS started threatening them that joining of NCP was mandatory for saving their lives. They obeyed under pressure in detention and after release attended NCP meeting on March 10th 2015.
On March 26th 2015, a group of MI soldiers arrested four women from Dilling Market. They were coming from Kalara village for shopping. Their names are indicated below;
- Amnah Mirga 70 years
- IshraghaHussein 22 years
- Noura Dawoud 65 years
- Taghawa Irin 65 years
They were apprehended at SAF Head Quarters in Dilling town. They were accused of supplying the SPLA-N with items they were shopping. Relatives of the four women tried to bail them out but MI refused. The four women were later released on April 26th, 2015 on condition that they should not move out of Dilling town for two months.
On April 29th2015, Rapid Support Force (RSF) supported by SAF attacked Kashsa village of the Nuba Mountains/ West Kordofan State. According to HUDO Centre’s sources, one person was killed about six (6) people were severely injured, twelve (12) were arrested and about eight shops around the village were robbed. The details are listed below;
- The deceased Kamal Kuku Ala’lim
- The injured:
- Faisal Mohamed Zakariya
- Mousa Abdul Gadir
- Malik Hashim Sultan
- Gism Allah Azrag Alnour
- Haggar Bakiet Ahmed
- Abdul Haleim Ibrahim
- The detained:
- Almamoun Alfadil
- Ahmed Shaieb Alkelaib
- Ahmed Abdallah
- Haroun Abdul Gadir Ala’sir
- Abdl Bagi Abdul Gadir Ala’sir
- Juma Dahawi Haloof
- Idris Abbas Haloof
- Salim Omer Haloof
- Ali Abbas Haloof
- Abdallah Alfail
- Adam Hamdan
- Mousa Hilo
- The people whose property was looted;
- Abaker Alnour
- Hassan Ismail
- Baraka Shawish
- Mujahid Alsayed Ibrahim
- Alsayed Ibrahim
- Salim Ismail Balaka
- Ismail Balaka
- Alfadil Farah Arouj
The table below Shows details of Kasha incident;
Faisal Mohamed Zakariya
Headmaster- Anjamina High School
Injured were all treated and sent back to their village.
Mousa Abdul Gadir
Malik Hashim Sultan
Student- Dilling University
Gism Allah Azrag Alnour
Haggar Bakiet Ahmed
Abdul Haleem Ibrahim
Chief of Kasha Tribe
Transported to Abuzabad town where they were interrogated. They have been accused of cooperating with SPLA-N. transported again to Alfoula after three days. On May 15th the Chief was released while the others released on June 11th. After their release they have been denied to leave Alfoula until the arrival of the new state governor. They were hosted by Ismail Jabori from Kasha Tribe – lives in Alfoula and works at the office of West Kordofan former Governor. On June 13th they were allowed to return to their village.
Ahmed Shaieb Alkelaib
Haroun Abdul Gadir Ala’sir
Headmaster- Alfainj Girls’ High School
Abdl Bagi Abdul Gadir Ala’sir
Juma Dahawi Haloof
Corporate Teacher- Damira Basic School
Idris Abbas Haloof
Salim Omer Haloof
Ali Abbas Haloof
Student - Anjamina High School
Student- Babanousa University
Traders- Market of Kasha Village
Shops were broken and looted. No compensation has been considered.
Mujahid Alsayed Ibrahim
Salim Ismail Balaka
Alfadil Farah Arouj
On June2nd 2015 in Lagorri village, armed PDF soldiers with four vehicles abducted three people. They were taken to SAF base in Kadugli town where they were interrogated and released on the following day 3rd June 2015. Their names are;
- Hamad Abdallah Majok, 50 years, teacher at Toksswana primary School in Laggorri.
- Suliman Abdalla Musa, 21 years, student.
- Alhaj Musa Alahmar, 30 years, farmer.
On June 6th2015, a number of armed soldiers from Rashad PDF headed by sergeant/ Alradi Osman Aldaw on MI vehicle attacked a home of Mohamed Idris Komi, 52 years old. They arrested him and confiscated some of his belongs as listed below;
- Thirty seven (37) cows
- Eight (8) sheep
- Nine thousands pound and four hundred Sudanese Pound (9400).
Mohamed was taken to Rashad MI prison. When his community leader visited him, MI officers informed him that Mohamed was arrested on the orders of Rashad’s governor. After one month in detention, 5th July 2015 Mohamed was released without his cattle and money. He tried to open case at Rashad police station but police officers could not allow. Later he went with the community leader and others to the governor Musa Yunis requesting for his belongings but, the governor intimidated him that he would be killed for associating with SPLA-N.
2.0.2 Arbitrary Arrest in Blue Nile
On April11th2015, NISS officers arrested five civilians in AL-Roseires town after thorough search of their houses and their names are;
- Algailey Abdalla Jabir
- Sediq Ahmed Sediq
- Mohamed Jouda
- Sediq Almugadam
- Elsir Mohamed Hamad
according to HUDO’s source, the detainees were taken to NISS office in Al-Roseires, later on the same day they transported them while their hands were tied with chains to NISS custody in Damazin. They were interrogated on the following day (12th April 2015) and accused of disrupting national election process. On the same day at 09:00PM Algailey Abdalla and Sediq Ahmed were released. The others remained in NISS custody up to April 21st 2015 when they were also released.
On April11th2015, MI in Damazin arrested the following and released them on13th April 2015:
- Azhari Alkhalifa, 30 years old from Madinah 8,
- Mohamed Omer, 32 years old, from Madinah 9,
- Alterefi Mohamed, 35 years old, from Madinah 9.
- Arbab Abunemah, 35 years old from Alkharabat,
The four detainees were former members of SPLM-N. Together with other people, they formed the National Movement for Peace and Development Party (NMPDP). According to NISS, their activity during the campaigns of the recent election was considered to be a threat.
On April 12th2015, NISS arrested Hafiz Mohamed Osman from Roseires Market and held him from 11:00 am up to 5:00 pm. They released him without telling him the reason for his arrest.
On April 13th2015, NISS arrested three students who are members of Umma National Party from Geli Village of Tadamon locality. The detainees are political activists at Blue Nile University; they were accused of supporting Arhal campaign. They were released on 18th-April-2015. Their names are;
- Ali Dafallah, graduate of Blue Nile University,
- Saleh Essa, Student at Blue Nile University,
- Hussein Yusuf, Blue Nile University.
On May 12th2015, MI officers in Daim Saad - East of Gissan Locality along the border with Ethiopia, arrested the following;
1- Mohamed Gism Allah Mousa a Medical Assistant
2- Abdul Aziz Fadul; Anter Ali Khalifa and
3- Siraj Hassan Hussein
They were all from Abrandu area and were detained for five (5) days. On the day of their arrest, they were taken to SAF military base in Bakori where they spent the night. The next day (13th May 2015) at 8:00 PM they were taken to SAF military based in Damazin. They were only asked about their names but were not accused of anything crime. They were detained at Damazin MI custody up to 17th May 2015 when they were released.
On May 13th 2015, MI arrested and physically assaulted Ms. Elham Ali Shikan, 30 years old, a tea Maker/seller from her home in Al Nahdah neighborhood. She was released on the same day. Later on, May 16th 2015 she was re-arrested with her university student sister Ms. Ena’m Ali Shikan, 26 years old. They were accused of spying for SPLA-N but they were released on the same day.
On May 22nd2015, around 3:00 pm, MI arrested
1- Aboud Ali Alnour, 19 years old student
2- Mohamed Albir Hassan 21 year old casual worker from Alshaheed Afandi Market.
They arrested them because they objected the forced displacement of civilians from their villages in BN (Bagees, Maganza and Madeim Aljabel). They were taken to an unknown place.
On May 23rd 2015, NISS arrested Altayeb Yagoub. He is known by his nickname Shawish (Sergeant), 62 years old, a retired Sudan Armed Force soldier. He lives in Arkaweet North of Damazin town. Yagoub was accused of conspiring and planning the attacks of SPLA- N. The retired soldier was released on May 25th, 2015 after being interrogated.
On June 24th2015, NISS arrested Gasim Sabir 38 years of age from Damazin. He was previously arrested many times since 2011. He was released on 29th June 2015. NISS accused him to have purchased his vehicle using money from SPLA-N.
On June 26th 2015, at around 1:00 pm, NISS officers arrested Mohamed Mahmoud Issa, 19 years a student at Blue Nile University. He was taken from Ganees East market by three NISS officers and he was released on the same day at around 6:00 pm after being tortured.
Mohamed was arrested for the alleged comments he made on 22nd June 2015 while engaging in an argument with a colleague named Aggaba about the attempted arrest of President Bashir in South Africa. Eight people (one of them called Mahadi) took turns in beating him with a black water pipe which caused injuries on his back.
After three days some NISS officers came and told him that he was wanted in their office Roseires. He was later interrogated about his comments of wishing the president’s arrest. They forced him to sign a document promising never to say such thing again and he was released after.
On Oct 15th 2015, MI arrested the following people in Damazin;
- Adam Saleh, 33 years
- Bashir Jumma, 38 years
- Mohammed Abdalla, 20 years(University student)
- Ibrahim Ali, 22 years
The detainees are residents of Blue Nile but originally from Darfur, and the MI accused them of associating with SRF. They were all released on the second day.
On Dec. 10th2015, MI arrested Suliman Tukul (35 years, self-employed) from his house at Damazin town. The MI accused him of communicating with his relatives who are with the SPLA-N via the phone. He was released after one week in detention.
On Dec. 12th 2015, MI arrested Amal Hassan (40 years) a female teacher. She was arrested from Wad Abouk village where she teaches in Bau Locality. No reason was given for her arrest and nobody was allowed to visit her.
2.1 Sexual violence
HUDO Centre received several reports about Sexual violence, mainly committed by the Military and other government security agencies together with the militias. There are many Cases of sexual violence but the victims and their families could not freely share the information because of social stigma and the security threats. The following chapters illustrate some cases in the two areas SK and BN;
2.1.1 Sexual violence in South Kordufan
On May 29 th2015, H. M. A four month pregnant lady, 34 years, was raped by four SAF soldiers. The victim lives in Terri Village and she was on her way back home from Chamchaka Market which is 10 kilometers away from her village. Along the way, she was stopped by seven (7) soldiers wearing SAF uniform, armed with AK 47 driving a Land Cruiser (red number plate 87). They searched her luggage which had her items/stuff worth (170) Sudanese Pounds that she had bought for her family. They offered her a lift of which she rejected. They lifted her, forced her into their vehicle and drove back towards Chamchaka. They stopped the car on the way and the four of them raped her in turns and left her with her luggage. The local Authorities allegedly stopped her from travelling for treatment despite the bleeding and the injuries she had sustained. The rape case was not reported.
On February 10th2015, NISS officers in Rashad town stopped a 26 year old unmarried lady from travelling anywhere. B. M. A who is a rape victim has been forced to report herself to NISS Office in Rashad three times a day. She has been continuously reporting to NISS. The victim was raped two years ago (April 6th 2013) by four (4) PDF militia men in-front of her mother. While she and her mother H. A. 60 years old, were heading home after collecting firewood from Drengees seasonal river two (2) kilometers north Elfaid.
On that fateful day, they met four (4) armed men in PDF uniform riding motorbikes. the ladies recognized one of them as a well-known trader at Elfaid market and also the commander of PDF in the area. They could not recognize the other three who had covered their faces with masks. They stopped the women and started beating the mother and ripped off the daughter’s (victim) clothes. All the four men raped her in turns on gun point. After that the armed men warned to kill the two women if they attempt to report the incident or even talk about it
On 7th February, 2015 the victim managed to flee on foot to Rashad town (25) kilometers from Elfaid. On the same day NISS in Rashad town discovered her fleeing and forced her to report to their office three times a day. Since then she is reporting on daily basis and she is not allowed to move out of the town
.2.1.2 Sexual violence in Blue Nile
On March 22nd2015, A. M. A, a 16 year old girl living in Gogish neighborhood of Damazin town, was raped by a solider from SAF Damazin. A neighbor to the victim who did not want to be named said that “the girl was sent by her family to buy milk near the Military Base”. The rape case was reported to Family and Child Protection Police by the victim’s family. The Medical Assessment Report confirmed the occurrence of the rape and the sustained injuries on the head and the left shoulder of the victim. The Police informed the victim’s family that the perpetrator will be summoned by his administration unit but it never happened until the time of writing this report. However, the victim’s family is not willing to disclose any more information about the case.
2.2 Child Violations
During the recent conflict the children are the most affected. They are facing challenges of displacement with their families, losing their time for schools as well as being arrested.
2.2.1 Child Violations in South Kordufan
On Dec. 26th 2014, Khaleil Yousif Adam, 16 Years of age was arrested from Elfaid by MI at 08:00 am; uniformed SAF soldiers accompanied by MI personnel in civilian clothing named A. B. (recognized by the mother of the victim) came to the parent’s house. On arrival, they started beating him then they took him to their Military base. The following day Dec. 27th 2014, the community leader (Sheikh) went to the Military base to inquire about the boy. The officer in-charge informed him that, this child has a brother who joined the SPLA-N and they are suspecting him to have connections with the rebel brother.
The detained child was forced to work at the commander’s house as a servant up to the time of his release on Jan 9th, 2015.
2.2.2 Child Violations in Blue Nile
On April 1st 2015, Roseires Police carried out an operation to arrest what they called Neggers’’ Gang in Nahdda neighborhood. Nineteen (19) young men were arrested with children among them;
- Muhanad Ibrahim 17 year old student.
- Yusuf (Haneen) 16 years old student
- Abdul Haleem Yusuf Osman 17 years old student
The nineteen detainees were transport to the NISS premises in Roseires. They were detained together in one room (4x4 meters). The children were forced to clean and cook for other detainees and guards. During the interrogation they accused them of being part of the Neggers Gang. They were verbally humiliated and insulted as slaves. On the April 4th 2015, they transferred them back to the Police Station. A case had been lodged against them under article - 69 (breaching of Peace) of the Sudan Criminal Act 1991. Later on, their relatives bailed them out. The following day on April 5th2015 they appeared before Court. The Judge precisely dismissed the case due to lack of evidence.
2.3 Civilians in conflict Areas
The arrival of Rapid Support force on opening of the year 2015 in Kadogli (the capital of South Kordufan State) caused a lot of anxiety because of the violence they cause.
Looting at Elneem Market in Kadogli downtown;
On Thursday 5thFeb-2015 Rapid Support force (RSF) attacked and looted Elneem Market in Kadogli downtown. According to the eye witness, at least thirty (30) shops were looted. In response, the local Public Defense Force (PDF) reacted in defense of shop owners. As a result, there was a fight whereby one lady was killed, number of civilians was severely injured and five (5) soldiers from the two fighting groups/ forces were killed.
After this incidence, the leadership of Kadogli commercial chamber announced the closure of the market because of insecurity. The security situation in Kadguli scared many people and others fled the town particularly after the attack on the market.
On Friday 6th-Feb-2015) while at the mosque, the Kadogli governor (Abuelbashar Abduelgadir) informed Kadogli residents that government had set up a police committee to compute the losses and looted items. The government will ensure that all items looted by SRF are brought back to owners. Up to then no reparation or compensations paid.
2.4 Forced Displacement
Residents from different villages suffered the attacks, looting, burning and displacement from security agencies (SAF and the governmental allied militias/ PDF) who gave them only two hours to evacuate.
2.4.1 Forced Displacement in South Kordufan
18.104.22.168 Al Ghadeer Village
Al Ghadeer Village
On January 4th2015, Al Ghadeer village (inhabited mainly by Tagali Tribe), 22 kilometers north-west of Al Abbasiya town was burnt.
About one hundred fifty (150) armed soldiers on eighteen (18) land cruisers arrived at the village in the afternoon. They were wearing two different kinds of uniform (SAF and PDF uniforms). The troops were commanded by SAF Officers; Maj. Azmi and Capt. Ali as well as Al Abbasiya district’s PDF Commander Yagoub Amein Elbushra. They parked at the compound of the Paramount Chief Farah Ibrahim Keuair. Maj. Azmi briefed him that; the government decided to erase the village because “you Tagali tribe have some young men who joined SPLA-N and you failed to bring them back. Your village has been used in passing on supplies to the rebels”. When the Chief tried to respond, some soldiers fired their guns and people around panicked and started to run.
Immediately the soldiers started to set fire on the village. Approximately eighty five (85) houses were burnt and about 600 people became homeless. Majority fled to Tabassa village and others continued to Um Rawaba town in North Kordufan State. Three (3) people were injured and admitted at Al Abbasiya hospital and discharged after five weeks. The injured were:
- Abdul MutalabTebin.
- Rudwan Eissa Ahmed.
- Mohamed Ahmed Adam.
22.214.171.124 Al Abbasiya Villages
People from the Eight (8) villages west of Al Abbasiya town have been displaced (Kalinda, Joukayia, Julia, Aljebelat, Alshawayia, Alsanadra, Manderaba and Toufein). addressing the public at Al Abbasiya Alhurriya (Freedom) Squire on March 6th 2015, the Former Governor of SK State Adam Alfaki said: “we do not want any village west of Al Abbasiya because its people are rebels. From today on; commanders of SAF, NISS and PDF if you find anybody heading west with a kilo of sugar kill him. Tomorrow the Air Force and Artillery shall clean the land. We do not want an ant there. Any person who does not leave is considered as a rebel”. On the second day 7th March, Air Force and Artillery bombarded the area as people fled. As a result, four pregnant women from Kalinda village had miscarriages. Their names are;
- Amnah Adam Idris, 34 years.
- Sarah Abdul Rahman, 21 years.
- Mawada Ibrahim Aldai, 40 years.
- Khaldah Mohamed Saleem, 27 years.
The affected women did not get any medical assistance and are still suffering from some complications and psychological trauma.
On March 8th2015, SAF and PDF carried- out an attack and many people were displaced and ran to different locations as indicated below:
- Some went to Almoileh 18 kilometers north of Al Abbasiya, a drought stricken land that lacks water resources. Water is brought by tankers from Al Abbasiya. Civilians preferred to camp in that area because it is close to their farms.
- Others camped in Aldamra 7 km North West of Al Abbasiya (in Schools and under trees around the farms). Aldamra has only one borehole, which is not enough for inhabitants, IDPs and animals.
- Others went to Tabassa, Alsesaban, Kamasor, Almadeim, Aldadori and Almadfak.
For more information see (Annex 1)
IDPs in Aldamra
126.96.36.199 Rashad Villages
On Sep. 17th2015, PDF soldiers from Elfaid Um Abdalla, Umbrambeta and Khor Eldelaib attacked Tomi, Elmansour and Jebailat Abuelhassan villages in South Kordufan state. During the attack, they killed two people (Bashir Haroun and his father Haroun), arrested, looted and burnt the villages. They accused the residents of this village that some young men therein had joined SPLA-N. These attacks displaced many residents to the nearest towns of Alrahad and Alsemaih of North Kordufan.
The Table Below Presents the Villages/Localities and Their Forced Displacement in South Kordufan/ Nuba Mountains
3. Jebailat Abuelhassan
North Kordufan State
v Um Rawaba
Al Abbasiya Locality
1) Al Ghadeer
2.3.2 Forced Displacement in Blue Nile
On April 3rd, 2015 SPLA-N forces gathered in Fuj area along the border with South Sudan. On 5th April the troops captured the Chrome Mining site in Jam village. They confiscated the tools, machinery and a fuel tank from the mining site and they also arrested the site’s guards. The same troops attacked the Police Station, SAF base and NISS Office in Jam. On April 6th SPLA-N attacked Diering area of Bau Locality and destroyed the Security premises. The troops left Diering leaving behind many civilians injured and others dead (Nasr Aldin Khamis Hanes was one of the dead civilians).
On April 8th 2015 SPLA-N attacked Madinah 10, on 10 April 2015 SAF reacted on the SPLA-N’s attacks on Madinah 10 by burning Madeim Aljabel Village of Bau Locality (14 kilometers south of Damazin). The SAF justified the burning by accusing the residents of the area that they cooperate with the SPLA-N. According to the local leaders, the area was inhabited by about 547 families mostly from Ingasana and Masaleet tribes as well as IDPs from Sabil, Khor Maganza (Maganza) and Fadima villages. Some of the displaced persons from Madeim Aljabel relocated to Madeim Masaleet village while others remained in the wilderness. Later on May 9th 2015 the Government of Blue Nile State forced them to move to Madeim Masaleet to Roseires Locality.
On April 13th2015, SPLA-N attacked Madinah 10 for the second time and this attack displaced almost all the inhabitants in town to Madinah 8 and Madinah 9. Some went up to Damazin and others preferred to follow the Nile to their original villages.
On May11th2015, SAF gave the civilians of Khor maganza village in Bau Locality two hours to evacuate. about 1500 families mostly from Ingasana Tribe had to leave. Some immediately left while others stayed and watched their houses and shops burn. Those who remained had stayed in the open area for three days and later went to Um Barid north of Roseires. Those who left earlier settled in Roseires, Alazaza and Shanisha villages. On the same day (May 11th2015) citizens of Bagees village were evacuated and transported by SAF to Alshaheed Afandi village in Bau Locality. Blue Nile State Humanitarian Commissioner visited them on the following day but, no services were provided.
On 18th May 2015, for the same allegations of cooperating with SPLA-N, SAF instructed civilians of the following villages (see annex 2) to vacate/leave within two hours;
- Madeim Masaleet in Bau Locality
- Gambarda in Kurmuk Locality
- Deglok in Bau Locality
- Abigo in Kurmok Locality.
Some residents of the above mentioned villages who were mainly from Ingasana tribe have moved to Damazin, Roseires and the neighboring state of Sinar.
On June 12th2015, citizens of Wad Abouk village of Bau Locality fled to Boutof Altadamon locality, Geli and to the forests between Wad Abouk and Geli. That was a result of the fighting between SAF and SPLA-N.
The Table Below Presents the Villages/Localities and Their Forced Displacement in Blue Nile
1. Madeim Aljabel
3. Khor Maganza
6. Wad Abouk
· Madinah 8
· Madinah 9
o Alshaheed Afandi
1. Madeim Masaleet
2. Madinah 10
M Kurmuk Locality
2.5 Denial of Humanitarian Aid
NISS denied a medical team organized by Sudanese national NGO to enter BN and access the IDPs locations
On 26th Nov 2015 evening hours, a medical team organized by an NGO (Kuluna Geium) from Khartoum arrived at Damazin town and was stopped by NISS officers at the check point. The medical team had scheduled to visit the IDPs located in the following areas;
- North Roseries (Shansha area and Wad Afudi)
- East Roseries (Azaza and other villages)
- Roseries (Alwehda neighborhood)
- Damazin (Ban Gadeid and Salha neighborhoods)
- Shaheed Afandi
- Wad Elmahi village
The targeted IDPs that were meant to be served in the said areas are about (675) families.
The team consisted of 75 people including five(5) consultants/Doctors, ten (10) lab technicians, five(5) medical practitioners, ten(10) medical students(in their 5th and 6th years of study) among others with the assortment of drugs. They were not allowed to go beyond the check point and they stayed there for the whole night.
In the morning of 27th Nov 2015 at 9:00AM, NISS officers ordered them to return (go back) to Khartoum. The reason NISS gave for denying them access to IDPs was that the NGO did not inform them (NISS) before their departure from Khartoum.
NOTE; The managers of the NGO however indicate that, they had made prior arrangements with the concerned ministries of Health and Humanitarian Affairs before coming to Damazin.
- Demand an immediate end to forced displacement of people from their villages.
- Stop the human rights violations and abuses by the fighting groups.
- Urge the Government of Sudan to allow humanitarian organizations to access the affected civilians in SK and BN states.
- The unconditional release of all people who are detained without any legal ground and guarantee fair trials for those who are charged.
- Establish an independent inquiry to investigate the violations and abuses committed in SK and BN states since June 2011.
- Urge the Sudanese civil society to actively engage in human rights advocacy.
 For more information about HUDO please visit: http://www.hudocentre.org/EN/about.html
 For more information please visit: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/sudan-civil-war1.htm
 For more information please visit: http://www1.american.edu/faculty/singerman/eagleeyeondarfur/firstsudcivilwar.html
Anya Nya (1); was the first group rebelled against the Central government established on 1963 based ontourit Garrison carried out a mutiny in 1955
Anya Nya (2) was a rebirth of Anya Nya (1). Those two Anya Nyas carried out the first war (1955 - 1972).
. For more information please visit: http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?mot1989
 This agreement was signed on 1972 between Joseph Lagu, the Head of Anya Nya 2 and Numeiri, Sudan President by then.
 For more information please visit: http://fas.org/irp/world/para/spla.htm
 Please review the following link for more info http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/africa/horn-of-africa/sudan/204-sudans-spreading-conflict-ii-war-in-blue-nile.pdf
In January 2005 at Naivasha, Kenya, CPA was signed between the Government of Sudan and SPLM.It was mediated by the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD). It includes six protocols one is dedicated for SK and BN (two areasprotocol).
 For more information please visit:https://books.google.co.tz/books?id=7CTvCQAAQBAJ&lpg=PA746&ots=ectFgRG7cD&dq=lack%20of%20trust%20between%20SPLA%20and%20SAF&pg=PA754#v=onepage&q=lack%20of%20trust%20between%20SPLA%20and%20SAF&f=false
 Popular consultation is an exercise whereby the two states’ Legislative Assemblies review the CPA and decide their fate as well as submitting their recommendation to the Presidency.
He is the current president of Sudan who is indicted by International Criminal Court (ICC)
 Dr. Nafie Ali Nafie, president assistant and deputy chairman of NCP
 Malik Agar Eyre, Blue Nile state governor and chairman of SPLM-N
 Darfurian tribes and Fulani, Hausa, Barnu among others...etc.
 WK State was created in 1990s and dissolved by the CPA in 2005.
 “Defense Minister Declared Start of (Defensive Summer) Operation to End Rebellion,” 14 April 2014, for more information please review this website news.sudanvisiondaily.com/details.html?rsnpid=234529
 Sudan National election please review http://www.panapress.com/Sudan--Voting-opens-in-Presidential,-Parliamentary-polls--12-630432029-105-lang2-index.html
 NISS, MI and their alliance militia always use vehicles without number plate to protect their identifications.
 The party in power
 Kasha village geographically is part of Nuba Mountains/ South Kordofan State it has been recently annexed among other areas to West Kordufan State by the Federal Government despite the objections of civilians.
 By the $1= 8 SDG
 Madinah 8, it is part of the new towns from 1- 12, they have been established as a compensation for the villages affected by the extension Roseires Dam. Collectively those towns accommodates about 22,000 families.
 Formed on Feb. 2012 by NCP after the war broke- out in BN. The intention was to divide SPLM-N membership in the state and engage them in the political operation.
 Arhal means leave, it is an election boycott campaign initiated and carried-out by Sudanese opposition youth movements later joined by opposing political parties, it was against Sudan General election 2015.
 It is a well-known weekly market, each Friday.
 170 pounds equals about twenty USD.
 Chamchaka has no clinic or police post, they have to travel Rashad town.
 The full name is Elfaid Umabdalla.
 Neggers is slang means Negros. It is a group of teenagers who wear a stylish low west pants. They are mainly from African origins.
It is an open flat area used to be occupied by nomads during rainy season.
 Those IDPs fled from the said villages on late 2011 when their villages were burned by SAF immediate after war started in Blue Nile
 People who return back from the first evacuation.